Saturday, March 14, 2020
Essay on MONEY AND INFLATION Essay on MONEY AND INFLATION Essay on MONEY AND INFLATIONInflation and deflation, in fact, are two sides of the same coin: inflation shows how prices of goods and services have risen, and deflation how they fell. Both these conditions may adversely affect the return on investment, and therefore these are the economic factors that must be taken into account when planning and managing investments. While in the apparent predominance of one trend (rising or falling of prices) the actions of an investor to protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio are quite obvious, if both deflation and inflation threaten the portfolio at the same time, it is necessary to undertake more complex steps to protect the investment. Below, we will consider in detail how the prediction of inflation or deflation will affect our personal investment decisions.Expecting inflationOver time, the prices of almost all commodities are growing. However, when this growth is too rapid, consumers as well as investors face difficulties: their purchasing power is f alling, therefore they cannot purchase the desired amount of goods. In addition, inflation negates return on investment: the amount received as profit is no longer sufficient to acquire the necessary goods and services (Hellerstein, 1997).In our view, there are several effective strategies to protect investments from inflation. In particular, investors who seek to receive a fixed income from investments often choose the inflation-protected state treasury securities: these bonds guarantee the increase in payments along with the increase of inflation. You can also invest in foreign bonds and currency, thus diversifying the portfolio and gaining access to the markets of those countries that are experiencing the negative effects of inflation to a lesser extent, or do not have them at all (Amadeo, 2010).Another popular way to hedge is gold. This metal has always served as the most reliable tool for conservation of savings, and today the price of gold increases with increasing instability , inflation and negative sentiment in the market. One more beneficial way of investment during inflation includes other tools of commodity market. Investing in shares of companies from developing countries who are engaged in the export of raw materials, investors may receive income from rising prices for oil, gas, gold, metals and others (Correa, 2012). In general, in anticipation of the depreciation of money, investors seek to find more cost-effective use of money, in particular, investing in business expansion, commodity assets, and real estate.Expecting deflationDeflation occurs when the low level of demand leads to a significant drop in prices. Anticipation of the coming fall in prices leads to postponement of current consumption of goods and services by the population. People delay shopping expecting the prices to go down, thereby the total consumption falls with all the consequences (Hellerstein, 1997). For example, the increase of the money purchasing power leads to lower com mitment of companies to invest with all other conditions being equal, employers begin to reduce their workforce, lenders begin to wind down their lending programs, and central banks will cut interest rates to encourage consumers to take credits and spend more.Under these conditions, investors can take advantage of the bonds as tools to protect their investments, as well as invest in shares of companies producing essential goods (Hellerstein, 1997). Indeed people will buy basic food, medicine, hygiene products, etc., no matter what, which means that the shares of such companies will be able to go through difficult times with minimal loss. Such securities are often called protective.Conditions of uncertaintySometimes it is difficult to determine whether inflation or deflation will bring more threats to investments. Such a situation could be seen during the global crisis of 2008-2009, when the real estate market and raw materials experienced deflation, while prices of consumer goods gr ew very rapidly (Hellerstein, 1997). The best solution in this situation is to prepare an investment portfolio for both situations to draw the portfolio including both, securities giving good results in periods of deflation, and the tools to protect against inflation. If the investor does not have a desire or sufficient skills to rapidly and accurately determine the cycle of inflation/deflation, diversification can provide income and preservation of funds regardless of the trends that will develop in the economy (Correa, 2012). In particular, we can recommend to invest in the securities of Ã¢â¬Å"blue chipsÃ¢â¬ : they are more persistent to deflation and pay dividends more often than other companies during inflation. Another way is investing in foreign emerging markets: companies from these countries are often exporting commodity, which are in high demand (protection against inflation) and are not too much attached to their national economy (which will protect investments in the case of deflation).At the same time, time factor plays an important role in the choice of ways to protect the investments. When making a long-term investment in the future, perhaps, one should not react to the slightest changes in the economy (Hellerstein, 1997). However, if the return on investment is a serious budget item, there is no time to wait for economic recovery. In order to continue to earn income and feel stable it is necessary to promptly take measures to protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s investments and diversify the portfolio in line with the current market situation.ConclusionWhen the prices of goods and services are rising and the purchasing power of money falls, we call this phenomenon inflation. When prices are falling and the purchasing power of money grows, it is deflation. General assumptions of investors about future changes in the price level affect their assessment of rate of return, and thus get reflected in the market value of assets. Thus, financial investments that br ing fixed incomes could be seriously damaged by a sudden rise in inflation, and conversely, could provide additional benefit in unexpected deflation. Unanticipated inflation reduces the value of the coupon payments on bonds as well as other fixed payments received by pension plans, annuities and insurance policies. Sudden deflation affects these payments in the opposite direction: the value of fixed payments such as interest on bonds rises, and therefore, the price of fixed income securities grows (Correa, 2012). In turn, during periods of sudden burst of inflation the most profitable are the investments in real estate, long-lived commodities, gold, and shares of commodity companies. To the extent in which prices in other countries change independently from the prices in the country of the investor, the possession of foreign currency or foreign securities can also protect from the effects of inflation and deflation.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Vulnerability Analysis and Network Architectures (Homeland Security) - Essay Example Despite the fact that power failures may last for some hours, crude oil pipelines destruction could deny refinery service for days, while a fire explosion could result to longer damages, for instance months. This means that the probability as well as cost for each occurrence will vary short of any known certainty. Replacement of refinery may cost over one billion dollars and the production loss of 500 barrels every day something that may result to severe revenue implications and shortages leading to increase in price in gasoline stations. Critical nodes within the supply chain storage components happen to be large capacity clusters that are located within major transport nodes. Most deliver 95 million gallons every day in average, gasoline, home heating oil, national defence fuels, kerosene as well as diesel oil (Kingsley, 2011). Their estimated market share of 20%of national supply, as well as boast the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major network of petroleum distribution. Their carrying capacity makes them very vulnerable. 2. IT-IASC or the Information Technology Information Sharing and Analysis Centre, was founded in the 2001 January by 19 prominent companies in the IT field including IBM, Computer Sciences, Oracle and EDS. The main role for IT- ISAC is serving as the central respiratory for information related to security. The purpose of the group is he sharing of information for each company that is about security attacks as well as vulnerabilities amongst all the members. The member organizations are expected to report any information that concerns security problems they have or the resolutions that they have discovered with regard to such problems. In accordance to FBI, IT-ISAC is supposed to increase the levels of security as well as reduce the monetary losses for the members. This during a time when the company can incur $400,000, as cost for an average attack (Rouse, 2014) In May 1998, President Clinton issue the presidential directive 63,
Monday, February 10, 2020
Total reward system proposal - Coursework Example to the overview provided above, it is clear that Rational Holidays will only be capable of meeting its HR needs if it adequately accomplishes a number of crucial elements. According to WorldatWork (2007), the primary aims of a TR strategy are to communicate a unique value proposition that sufficiently meets the needs of current and potential employees in order to minimize unnecessary employee turnover. Secondly, the strategy aims to offer a framework for the design, administration and communication of rewards programs by employers. To achieve these objectives, Rational Holidays must conceive a suitable strategy involving the various elements: The first element is to lay out the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies. In other words, the firm must first articulate its core values together with its business strategies. Particularly, the firm must spell out how the proposed strategy will ensure that the business needs as well as aims are met. In addition to this, the company will need to stipulate exact timelines when goals are set to be achieved. The second vital element that be encompassed in the TR strategy is the statement of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s overall objectives. It is well-known that multinational companies operate in an environment that is highly diverse, from a number of perspectives. Apart from the diverse legal requirements involved, multinationals have to respond to different customer needs, just the same way that it has to deal with the demands and conflicting opinions of numerous shareholders. As a result, the TR strategy for Rational Holidays will need to include distinctive statements that outline how the system will uphold these diverse needs. To accomplish this, the approach will need to clearly delineate the roles that will be played by every reward element. The third element is prominence. Every TR strategy ought to give a general description of the superiority of compensation rewards over other tools with an impact on actions as well as decisions. To achieve this
Thursday, January 30, 2020
High Altitude Living Low Altitude Training Essay Altitude training describes training practice by athletes training in oxygen deprived conditions for several weeks to increase their performance endurance. Often, there are altitudes training camps strategically designed for this objective (Geiser, Vogt, Billeter, Zuleger, Belforti Hoppeler, 2001). Altitude training further entails simulated or natural altitude conditions in the training course often as a precursor to a major competition event. The conditions are maintained while the training athlete is in the training process, during exercises and while at rest. Despite this, altitude training strategy exposes the athlete to hypoxia, low oxygen pressure, thereby resulting to hypoxemia, tissue oxygenation and lower blood. The history of living high altitude and training low altitude traces to 2400m altitude MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s 1968 Olympic Games. During the event, enduring athletes such as in the 10,000 and 3,000 m marathons could not set new records and their performance declined whiles the sprinter athletes succeeded (Rusko, LeppÃÆ'Ã ¤vuori, MÃÆ'Ã ¤kelÃÆ'Ã ¤, LeppÃÆ'Ã ¤luoto, 2010). Altitude hypoxia condition explained this. It was known to decimate human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s aerobic performance. Consequently, coaches, athletes and sports consultants adopted altitude training camps to acclimatize competition. Implementing altitude training was observed also to altitudes. Experts argued that, in endurance performance, the volume of total red blood cells was paramount. This was confirmed by experimental tests involving manipulation of human blood (Stray-Gundersen, Chapman, Levine, 2012). Therefore, the higher the volume of an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s red blood cells, the faster the performance of an athlete probably is during the triathlon. However, it is commonly observed that altitude training has improved the performance and endurance of multiple athletes but still others do not. So, how comes altitude training does not induce the consistency in positive results? Scientific empirical evidences suggest astronomical variant individual adaptive responses to this training concept. In addition, altitude tolerance exposure determinants are also poorly understood (Tiollier, Schmitt, Burnat, Fouillot, Robach, Filaire, et al., 2005). Moreover, hypoxia condition training at a practical level as the training intensity management is a principal problem. Under such conditions, maximal exercise capacity of an athlete reduces drastically. High living and low training concept arose to improve on the defects of altitude training. It involves sleeping or living at high altitude thereby stimulating increase in volume of red blood cells while training at sea level to conserve an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s training intensity. This helps to overcome multiple training related problems while posting consistent adaptations. Besides, living high and training low at low altitude triggered renal hormone erythropoietin (EPO) secretion (Wilber, 2013). In turn, the hormone stimulates the synthesis of red blood cells provided there is sufficient Ã¢â¬Ëaltitude dose. Therefore, the high altitude living low altitude training rationale in sporting events was founded on a combination of altitude and rigorous practice to boost the volume of red blood cells. In so doing, there was a boost in an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s endurance performance. Based on this finding, several hypoxic facilities across the worldwide have been established by various sports federations over the years. In addition, numerous amateur, elite and professional athletes across the world training in low altitudes prior to major events have been observed to set new fetes (Wilber, 2013). This confirms the high altitude living and low altitude training hypothesis. Despite this, numerous accurately controlled scientific researches do not exhibit systematic assertive results of the hypothesis on athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s endurance performance. Despite the anecdotes, altitude training results over the years produced majority positive performance results among athletes. Assertive endurance results by elite athletes who posted world-class records over the years present a strong case to adapt classical altitude training. References Geiser, J., Vogt, M., Billeter, R., Zuleger, C., Belforti, F., Hoppeler, H. (2001). Training High Living Low: Changes of Aerobic Performance and Muscle Structure with Training at Simulated Altitude. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(8), 579-585. Rusko, H. K., LeppÃÆ'Ã ¤vuori, A., MÃÆ'Ã ¤kelÃÆ'Ã ¤, P., LeppÃÆ'Ã ¤luoto, J. (2010). Living High, Training Low; A New Approach To Altitude Training At Sea Level In Athletes. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 27(Supplement), S6. Stray-Gundersen, J., Chapman, R. F., Levine, B. D. (2012). Living High Training Low Altitude Training Improves Sea Level Performance In Male And Female Elite Runners. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 12(1), 60-61. Tiollier, E., Schmitt, L., Burnat, P., Fouillot, J., Robach, P., Filaire, E., et al. (2005). Living highÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"training low altitude training: effects on mucosal immunity. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(3), 298-304. Wilber, R. L. (2013). Pro: Live High+Train Low Does Improve Sea Level Performance Beyond that Achieved with the Equivalent Living and Training at Sea Level. High Altitude Medicine Biology, 14(4), 325-327. Source document
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã You see them smiling. Standing poised, focused and in a state of jubilation. Some think they are crazy and have little regard for them while others idolize, respect and perhaps even aspire to be one someday. Whether they choose to do it professionally as a career, or simply for recreational purposes; the life of a Bodybuilder can be a very fulfilling and rewarding experience. But not without itÃ¢â¬â¢s share of hardships and tribulations. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was June of 2003, when I decided to train for and compete in the NY State Natural Bodybuilding Competition. I had been a Personal Trainer for close to four years and been training routinely for almost seven years. Up to that point, my lifestyle of living in the gym and learning all I can about nutrition and exercise was strictly a hobby for me. An obsession, but a hobby nonetheless. I had met a group of really nice guys at my gym, some of who had previously competed in competitions, and they convinced me to train with them for the next competition that was eight weeks away. What transpired over those following eight weeks was an experience I will never forget. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We wasted no time preparing. The day immediately following our decision to train together, we devised a bulking diet for ourselves. The purpose of this diet was to eat as much as you can for three to four weeks of relatively clean food, such as; chicken, beef, fish, tuna, potatoes, vegetables and so on. I was consuming anywhere from 4000 to 5000 calories a day during that time. In conjunction to the high calorie diet, I was also drinking close to two gallons of water a day. This left me feeling very bloated, stuffed, and borderline sick. There is not enough time in the day to prepare 5000 calories worth of food, so I had to supplement a lot by drinking high-calorie shakes often throughout the day at work. Taking in 340 grams of Protein a day further required me to keep all kinds of supplements, powders, potions, pills; you name it, at work to be readily availably to me. My office was slowly beginning to resemble a GNC store. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Once I began to cope with the massive amounts of food I was consuming, I soon had another obstacle to overcome; the training. Never before had I trained like this.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
His first point criticised PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s analogy of the watch. The first part of the analogy claimed that if you found a rock while walking through a heath, you would not think anything of it. However, if you had seen a watch you would examine it and find that it had moving parts that demonstrate that the watch has a purpose, the parts work together for a purpose and they are ordered to make the watch function because if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t, the watch wonÃ¢â¬â¢t perform its function. He concluded the first part of his analogy by saying that the watch had a maker who must have existed at some time and place. The second part of the analogy claimed that if we suppose the watch had another imaginary function, and this function was the producing of other watches, then our admiration for the watchmaker would be increased. He concluded this part of his argument by saying that anyone who finds such a watch would conclude that the design of the watch implies Ã¢â¬Ëthe presence of intelligence and mindÃ¢â¬â¢. Paley said that just like the watch being designed necessitates a designer as an explanation of its existence, all of nature requires a much greater designer. The complexity of nature is far greater than any machine human beings can make and therefore a grand designer is needed, this designer is God. Hume criticised this point by saying that the analogy is limited. For example, you could conclude from a study of the human blood circulatory system that animals had the same system. This would be a weak and mistaken analogy however to compare a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s and an animalÃ¢â¬â¢s circulato ry system to the way sap circulates in a plant. Hume maintained his criticism of PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s analogy of the watch by an analogy of his own. This analogy said that we can conclude that a house had a builder and an architect but we cannot, however, deduce a builder or architect of the universe in the same way because there is no similarity between the two. He mentioned that if the house is faulty, what does this suggest about the designer? And so, if God did design the world, is he directly responsible for the evil within it? Paley, however, rejected this point because the issue was whether the universe exhibited signs of design. He was not concerned with questions relating to issues of quality concerning the design. PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s response was criticised to be unsatisfactory. Hume argued that there are other possible explanations than God for apparent design in the universe. Hume claimed that one of these possible explanations might be that as well as the possibility that there is a grand designer of the universe, it is equally possible that Ã¢â¬Ëmatter may contain the spring of order originally within itself, as well as mind doesÃ¢â¬â¢ and that unless there is perfect similarity between the object of comparison and what is being compared, you cannot draw a conclusion with any certainty. Another possible explanation for apparent design in the universe might be that any effects that we observe in nature may be caused by a variety of causes. This view supports the discovery of natural selection and the DNA and its role of shaping the growth of all living organisms. Hume claimed that there might not be just one single designer for the world. For example, we may look at a great ship and think about the great design of it, but the ship may be the result of years, even generations of trial and error. The ship may be the product of many hands and not just one great designer. From this, Hume concludes that there is no evidence to suggest the Ã¢â¬Ëunity of the deityÃ¢â¬â¢. Hume suggested three more theories as explanations for the design of the universe; aptness of analogy, the epicurean thesis and the argument from effect to cause. The aptness of analogy said that a watch is not a suitable analogy for the world. For example, just because a cabbage is fitted together/designed perfectly, does not mean that it has a maker/designer. By using a machine as an analogy, you would have already determined the outcome you want; you want there to be a designer and youÃ¢â¬â¢re already assuming that something natural, i.e. the cabbage, has a designer. The epicurean thesis was explained using an example. This example spoke about particles and said that if they were freely moving around over infinite time, by chance, one of the combinations they make would just happen to represent a stable order and this stable order is what we now live in. This example represented the view that the universe might have happened by chance. The argument from effect to cause claimed that we cannot go from an effect to a greater cause than that needed to produce the cause. We cannot say whether he made the watch alone or had some little helpers. This would mean that we do not and cannot know whether he is still active or even still alive, we can only say if the universe does/doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a designer and canÃ¢â¬â¢t list its traits by saying that he is benevolent, omnipotent, omniscient and infinite as many would portray him. Overall, Hume criticises the teleological argument in a number of ways. He very explicitly criticises PaleyÃ¢â¬â¢s views on the teleological argument, using them to explain why he believes that the argument is deeply flawed.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Human Relations Perspective In Management The human relations perspective is a way to manage a corporation where the employees are viewed as social beings with complex needs and desires as opposed to just units of production. It is based on the works of Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor in the mid twentieth century. This perspective places an emphasis on the social networks found in a corporation and uses gratification, not depravation, to provide motivation in the workplace. The human relations perspective developed in the mid twentieth century and was an extension of the behavioral viewpoint. Prior to the behavioral, almost all management was looked upon through the classical viewpoint. This viewpoint specifically focused on howÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Management: A practical Introduction (pp. 46-49). NYC: McGraw Hill.) Maslow and McGregor further developed this idea into the human relations perspective, the idea that better human relations could increase productivity. T he human relations perspective views the workplace as an intricate social network which a manager must control though increased participation from employees and open communication. Within this perspective employees are viewed as responsible, social, and self-motivated. These views support Douglas McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Y. Managers who follow theory Y believe employees generally enjoy work, are often self-motivated to complete tasks efficiently and to the best of their ability, and will actively seek responsibility. They also believe that people in general are smarter than previously realized and can exercise high levels of creativity and ingenuity. (Heyel, C. (Ed.). (1982). The Encycolpedia of Management . NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.) McGregor compares this to managers who follow the X theory, who believe employees avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are inherently lazy. They feel that people must be controlled and threatened in order to work to their best ability a nd are primarily motivated by monetary rewards. This is the view that managers held in previous perspectives. McGregor believed that a belief in a certain theory could end up being a self Ã¢â¬â fulfilling prophecy, meaning that if a manager believes their employees willShow MoreRelatedEssay on Human Relations Perspective in Management1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKatie Tolan Management Human Relations Perspective The human relations perspective is a way to manage a corporation where the employees are viewed as social beings with complex needs and desires as opposed to just units of production. It is based on the works of Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor in the mid twentieth century. This perspective places an emphasis on the social networks found in a corporation and uses gratification, not depravation, to provide motivation in the workplace. 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